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Unify the Dialogue and FAQ Systems

So far, we have built two separate conversational AI systems, a FAQ system that automatically scales with the available question-answer pairs and a multi-turn action-oriented dialogue system that can handle complex requests. These two systems serve different use cases and can be combined to a single system to provide a flexible and robust conversational AI experience. In this section, we are going to unify these two systems into one coherent conversational AI system.

While these two systems rely on different AI models, they share many of the same logic flow. They both follow the general steps of first analyzing user's question with NLU AI models, make decision on the next conversational state to be and then construct and return a response to the user. Leveraging this shared pattern, we will first unify the node architecture of the two systems with a single parent node type, cai_state (cai is short of conversational AI).

node cai_state {
has name;
can init_wlk_ctx {
new_wlk_ctx = {
"intent": null,
"entities": {},
"prev_state": null,
"next_state": null,
"respond": false
if ("entities" in visitor.wlk_ctx) {
// Carry over extracted entities from previous interaction
new_wlk_ctx["entities"] = visitor.wlk_ctx["entities"];
visitor.wlk_ctx = new_wlk_ctx;
can nlu {}
can process {
if (visitor.wlk_ctx["prev_state"]): visitor.wlk_ctx["respond"] = true;
else {
visitor.wlk_ctx["next_state"] = net.root();
visitor.wlk_ctx["prev_state"] = here;
can nlg {}

Note that the logic for init_wlk_ctx and the default process logic have been hoisted up into cai_state as they are shared by the dialogue system and FAQ system. You can remove these two abilities from dialogue_state node, as it will be inheriting them from cai_state now.

We then update the definition of dialogue_state in dialogue.jac to inherit from cai_state:

node dialogue_state:cai_state{
// Rest of dialogue_state code remain the same

Before we move on, we will take a quick detour to introduce multi-file jac program and how import works in jac.

Multi-file Jac Program and Import

Jac's support for multi-file is quite simple. You can import object definitions from one jac file to another with the import keyword. With import {*} with "./code.jac", everything from code.jac will be imported, which can include nodes, edges, graph and walker definition. Alternatively, you can import specific objects with import {node::state} with "./code.jac".

To compile a multi-file Jac program, you will need one jac file that serves as the entry point of the program. This file need to import all the necessary components of the program. Chained importing is supported.

Once you have the main jac file (let's call it main.jac), you will need to compile it and its imports into a single .jir file. jir here stands for Jac Intermediate Representation. To compile a jac file, use the jac build command

jaseci > jac build main.jac

If the compilation is successful, a .jir file with the same name will be generated (in this case, main.jir). jir file can be used with jac run or jac dot the same way as the jac source code file.


The jir format is what you will use to deploy your jac program to a production jaseci instance.

Unify FAQ + Dialogue Code

For faq_state, we need to now define the nlu and nlg node abilities for FAQ. So let's update the following in faq.jac

First, faq_root

node faq_root:cai_state {
can use.qa_classify;
can nlu {
if (!visitor.wlk_ctx["prev_state"]) {
answers = -->.answer;
best_answer = use.qa_classify(
text = visitor.question,
classes = answers
visitor.wlk_ctx["intent"] = best_answer["match"];
can process {
if (visitor.wlk_ctx["prev_state"]): visitor.wlk_ctx["respond"] = true;
else {
for n in --> {
if (n.context["answer"] == visitor.wlk_ctx["intent"]){
visitor.wlk_ctx["next_state"] = n;
visitor.wlk_ctx["prev_state"] = here;
can nlg {
visitor.response = "I can answer a variety of FAQs related to Tesla. What can I help you with?";

At this point, if you have been following this journey along, this code should be relatively easy to understand. Let's quickly break it down.

  • For FAQ, the nlu logic uses the USE QA model to find the most relevant answer. Here we are re-using the intent field in the walker context to save the matched answer. You can also opt to create another field dedicated to FAQ NLU result.
  • For the traversal logic, this is very similar to the previous FAQ logic, i.e. find the faq_state node connected to here that contains the most relevant answer.
  • for n in --> iterates through all the nodes connected with an outgoing edge from the current node. You can use .context on any node variables to access its variables.

And the logic for the faq_state that contains the answer is relatively simple;

node faq_state:cai_state {
has question;
has answer;
can nlg {
visitor.response = here.answer;

With these new nodes created, let's update our graph definition. We have renamed our graph to be tesla_ai and the dialogue.jac file to tesla_ai.jac.

graph tesla_ai {
has anchor dialogue_root;
spawn {
dialogue_root = spawn node::dialogue_root;
test_drive_state = spawn node::test_drive_state;
td_confirmation = spawn node::td_confirmation;
td_confirmed = spawn node::td_confirmed;
td_canceled = spawn node::td_canceled;

dialogue_root +[intent_transition(intent="test drive")]+> test_drive_state;
test_drive_state +[intent_transition(intent="cancel")]+> td_canceled;
test_drive_state +[entity_transition(entities=["name", "address"])]+> td_confirmation;
test_drive_state +[intent_transition(intent="provide name or address")]+> test_drive_state;
td_confirmation +[intent_transition(intent="yes")]+> td_confirmed;
td_confirmation +[intent_transition(intent="no")]+> test_drive_state;
td_confirmation +[intent_transition(intent="cancel")]+> td_canceled;

faq_root = spawn graph::faq;
dialogue_root +[intent_transition(intent="i have a question")]+> faq_root;

One thing worth pointing out here is that we are spawning a graph inside a graph spawn block.

Our graph should now looks like this!

Here comes the biggest benefit of our unified node architecture -- the exact same walker logic can be shared to traverse both systems. The only change we need to make is to change from dialogue_state to cai_state to apply the walker logic to a more generalized set of nodes.

walker talk {
root {
take --> node::dialogue_root;
cai_state {
if (!question) {
question = std.input("Question (Ctrl-C to exit)> ");

Update the graph name in the init walker as well.

walker init {
root {
spawn here ++> graph::tesla_ai;
spawn here walker::talk;

To compile the program,

jaseci > jac build tesla_ai.jac

As mentioned before, if the compilation succeeded, a tesla_ai.jir will be generated.


Run into issues at this build step? First check if all the imports are set up correctly.

Running a jir is just like running a jac file

jaseci > jac run tesla_ai.jir

One last step, since we introduce a new intent i have a questions, we need to update our classifier model again. This time, use the clf_train_3.json example training data.

Note Make sure so save your model again so you can return to it in a new session!

The model is trained? Great! Now run the jir and try questions like "I have some tesla related questions" then following with FAQ questions!

Congratulations! You have created a single conversational AI system that is capable of answering FAQs and perform complex multi-step actions.